Is it a Whale or a Building? Budapest Architecture

A Trapped Whale: Budapest Architecture

Nestled in the middle of warehouses, the Balna Whale Commercial Center moves Budapest Architecture into the future through its innovative design and off-site construction methods.  

Getting there

Budapest is an interesting city on the bank of Danube river.  I had an opportunity to visit Budapest several years ago.  It is characterized by old world architecture, efficient transportation system and friendly people.  The Balna Whale is an attempt to move Budapest Architecture into the future.  The Balna is a cultural and commercial center located halfway between the Liberty and Petofi bridges on the Pest side of the Danube river.  The Balna is easily accessible by mass transit.

Budapest Architecture on the Danube

Four storage warehouses were constructed on the Pest side of Danube river between 1874 and 1881 to store food grains.  The location of these warehouses on Danube river allowed transportation of stored goods along the waterways.  Only three warehouses remain at the present time. One of the four warehouses was demolished after the second world war.  These warehouses have seen a decline in their importance as newer modes of transportation have emerged in the recent past.

Entrance to Balna Whale
Entrance to the Balna – Whale 2

The Balna Whale

The Balna was conceived as an urban center to revitalize the warehouse district.  Before it became known as the Balna or Whale, it was known as CET, an acronym for Central European Time.  The Balna has a mix of uses such as art galleries, bookstores, restaurants, event spaces and parking. It also retains at least 60 % of the original warehouses to maintain a sense of history. 

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Dutch Architect to the Rescue

The project was designed by the Dutch architectural firm of ONL headed by architect Kas Oosterhuis.  Kas is a pioneer when it comes to reimagining the way we design and build buildings.  Similar to internationally acclaimed architects such as SANAA, Jean Nouvel and BIG, ONL utilizes parametric design to create innovative architecture. However, ONL goes one step further and attempts to create dynamic buildings that mimic natural systems. 

The roof structure
The roof structure 3

Working with Complexity

With an intention to capture the flow of river Danube through architecture, ONL designed a five-story structure with two underground parking levels and three above ground public levels.  The result was a whale shaped structure constructed of concrete, aluminum, steel, and glass nestled between two parallel warehouses.  These two warehouses were remodeled, while the third one was reduced in size to improve access for the new complex.  Much like its natural counterpart, the whale emerges and expands between the two warehouses to form its head.  The curving arched roof is made of triangular shapes of tubular steel structure and glass panels. Due to the complex geometry, panels vary in size and no two panels are similar. This level of complexity was only possible through CNC based off-site construction methods.  Continuing with its trend setting design, ONL is also exploring SWARM based modeling, where a change in one variable prompts an automatic adjustment in the entire system, similar to a flock of birds in flight.

SWARM modeling
SWARM modeling 4

Architecture’s Role

The Balna appears to be a trapped Whale that is trying to emerge out of the warehouse district, similar to the City of Budapest that is trying to emerge out of its checkered past. Nevertheless it is successful in many ways.  It is a fun building full of exciting uses.  Architecturally, it provides wonderful spaces for shopping, relaxation, and amusement.  It is a unique structure that reestablishes the importance of Budapest’s waterfront and its history.  Its organic shape and innovative architecture point to a promising future for Budapest and its inhabitants.


  • Title Image:  LordToran, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.  File:Lto-bud2016-bálna-überdonau.Jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2023, from
  • 2          VargaA CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.  File:Balna Budapest 2014 2.Jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2023, from
  • 3          VargaA – CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.  Category:Bálna Budapest. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2023, from
  • 4          D. Dibenski, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.  File:Auklet flock shumagins 1986.Jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved January 16, 2023, from

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