Egypt is known for pyramids and pharaohs. It is also where an Egyptian architect named Hasan Fathy developed an indigenous style of architecture that blends the modern spirit with traditional craftsmanship. A wonderful example of this postmodern vernacular architecture is found at the New Gourna Village near Luxor.
During my backpacking tour of ancient civilizations, I took a short flight from Athens to Cairo after travelling through Italy and Greece. I couldn’t wait to explore the land of the pharaohs after exploring the Greek and Roman architecture. After visiting the pyramids at Cheops near Cairo and indulging in touristic things, I took a road trip with several Egyptian colleagues to the stepped pyramids at Saqqara followed by the ruins at Luxor. But the best part of the trip was the visit to New Gourna village near Luxor by the Egyptian architect Hasan Fathy.
Street scene – New Gourna Village near Luxor in Egypt 1
Hasan Fathy’s new Gourna Village
Hasan Fathy is world renowned for his trendsetting architecture rooted in traditional craftsmanship and vernacular architecture. Hasan Fathy was interested in developing a style of architecture rooted in local traditions, and built with local materials using skilled labor. It was the architecture for the poor as he wrote in his book by the same name.
Search for an indigenous style
Expressing his frustration with modern architecture built with concrete and steel and endorsed by the Egyptian bureaucracy, Fathy argued for an indigenous style rooted in Arab traditions and local climate. He wrote that modern Egypt lacked indigenous style, had no character, and was cut off from its traditions. He devoted his life to search for an indigenous style and was successful in developing such a style at new Gourna Village.
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Architecture for the poor
New Gourna village was conceived as a settlement for the people displaced by the discovery of archeological findings near the old Gourna village. Fathy relied heavily on sustainable design principles such as enclosed courtyards, vaulted ceilings, and perforated walls, which were prevalent in the old village. What resulted was an architecture that was appropriate and appealing to the masses, was built with locally available materials, and was aptly labeled as the postmodern vernacular architecture for the poor.
New Gourna Market 2
New Gourna Mosque 3
Postmodern vernacular architecture
For many, Fathy’s work represents postmodern vernacular, however Fathy was a contemporary of modernist architects and his work can truly be described as a different type of modernism. The type of modernism that looks forward as well as looks backward to find a blend of new modernist spirit rooted in local traditions.
- Title Image: Marc Ryckaert (MJJR), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons. File:Gurna mosque R01.Jpg. (n.d.). Wikimedia.org. Retrieved September 16, 2022, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14646024
- 1 Egraf on Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons. File:New gourna.Jpg. (n.d.). Wikimedia.org. Retrieved September 16, 2022, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=20264990
- 2 Roland Unger, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons. File:NewQurnaMarket.Jpg. (n.d.). Wikimedia.org. Retrieved September 16, 2022, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=24843020
- 3 Marc Ryckaert (MJJR), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons. File:Gurna mosque R07.Jpg. (n.d.). Wikimedia.org. Retrieved September 16, 2022, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=37846977